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Spotter's Guide to Countryside Mysteries
John Wright 2021 Profile Books

This page provides the references used in the book.
About four hundred academics papers and reports were referred to in the writing of the book. This is a bit too much for the reader (and writer!) to tackle in a list, so just one hundred or so are listed here.

They are presented by chapter, with the location provided in the format 000:00, that is, page number and paragraph number. Paragraphs with inset quotations are considered to be a single paragraph. The location referred to is the end of a paragraph - which may be on the next page.

Water Meadows

20:5 In: The origins of water meadows in England. Hadrian Cook, Kathy Stearne and Tom Williamson 1999

21:2 The Floating of the Wiltshire Water-meadows. E. Kerridge 1953

23:2 The origins of water meadows in England. Hadrian Cook, Kathy Stearne and Tom Williamson 1999

24:1   General view of the agriculture in the county of Dorset. John Claridge 1795

25:2 'Agriculture 1500-1793', in A History of the County of Wiltshire: Volume 4, ed. Elizabeth Crittall 1959

Sheepfolds and Sheepstells

26:2 A Walk on the Wild Side. Cholderton Estate. Henry Edmunds FRES 2017

27:2 The Sheepfolds of the Lammermuirs. Archaeology on Furlough Coordinator: Rob Wiseman et al August 2020


30:1 Bromyard News. The Amateur Shepherd. 21 May 1903

31:1 Bromyard News. The Amateur Shepherd. 21 May 1903

31:3 Kendal Mercury - Saturday 30 November 1839

32:1 Stone Built Sheepwashes in Gloucestershire. Garrett and Ted Hodgkins 1995

33:1 The famous dip that helped cure the scourge of Sheep. Dacorum Heritage Trust


34:2 Pounds and Pinfolds of Cumbria “The History and Mystery of Pinfolds” Nigel Mills undated

35:1 Stamford Mercury - Friday 04 January 1889

36:4 Tipperary Free Press - Saturday 02 June 1832

37:1 Pounds and Pinfolds of Cumbria “The History and Mystery of Pinfolds” Nigel Mills undated

Marl Pits

40:4 The Marl Pits of West Sussex. Emma Jeffery 2008

41:1 Custom of Marling. A Magazine of Literary and Miscellaneous Information. Volume 4. “Amicus” 1808

41:3 A floristic appraisal of marl pits in parts of north-western England and northern Wales. P. Day 1982

45:2 Molinia caerulea Purple Moor-grass: Context for Management. An introduction to its place in mire plant communities in England. Roger Meade 2015

45:4 Reports from Secret and Select Committees of the House of Commons and Evidence, Volume 38 Great Britain. Parliament. House of Lords 1848

45:4 The Draining of Balmer Lawn New Forest Notes - Lymington Times Anthony Pasmore circa 2007

46:2 Some effects of grazing on the vegetation of streamside lawns in the New Forest. P J Edwards 1985

47:1 Flowers of the Forest: Plants and People in the New Forest National Park. Clive Chatters 2009

47:2 Britain’s Habitats. A Guide to the Wildlife Habitats of Britain and Ireland. Sophie Lake et al 2015 Princeton University Press; Revised, Updated edition (20 Oct. 2020)

Dew Ponds

50:2 Folk Memory or the Continuity of British Archaeology Walter Johnson 1908

50:3 Dewponds in Fable and Fact. Alfred J. Pugsley. 1938

51:1 Western Gazette - Friday 26 February 1932

52:1 A Compleat Body of Husbandry, Volume 3. Thomas Hale 1758

52:2 Letter To The Honourable Daines Barrington, Selborne, Feb. 7, 1776. Gilbert White

52:3 Explanation of a new Philosophico-Chorographical Chart of East Kent. Dr Christopher Packe 1743

53:2 A Short Practical Treatise on Dew-Ponds H. P. Slade 1837

55:2 Curwen. Sussex Geology referenced in Dewponds in Fable and Fact. Alfred J. Pugsley. 1938

55:3 Rainwater Harvesting The collection of rainfall and runoff in rural areas. A. Pacy, A. Cullis

Strip Lynchets

57:2 The Distribution of Strip Lynchets G. Whittington 1962

58:2 Air Survey and Archæology. O. G. S. Crawford 1923

59:2 A Wiltshire Childhood. Ida Candy 1929

63:1 Towards a Terminology doe Strip Lynchets. G. WHITTINGTON undated

63:1 British Strip Lynchets. J. W. MACNAB 1965


63:3 The History of the Countryside. Oliver Rackham. 1986

Ridge and Furrow

70:4 Book of Husbandry. I. R. 1598?

71:2 Ridge and Furrow and Agrarian History Eric Kerridge 1951

72:2 Runrig: The Evidence for Roxburghshire and Berwickshire. Robert A. Dodgshon 1975

74:1 The English Peasantry and the Enclosure of the Common Fields. Gilbert Slater. 1907.

74:3 Derby Mercury - Thursday 19 April 1739

75:2 The Scots Magazine - Monday 01 September 1794

76:1 Modern Husbandry; a practical and scientific treatise on agriculture. George Henry Andrews. 1853

77:2 Northampton Mercury - Saturday 07 March 1795

77:2 Farmer's Gazette and Journal of Practical Horticulture - Saturday 02 March 1850

77:2 Kendal Mercury - Saturday 16 May 1840

Storage Pits

79:1 Finding Duropolis. A new kind of Iron Age settlement. Current Archaeology.

79:1 The Durotriges Project 2017:A Interim Statement. Miles Russell et al 2017

81:1 Storage of Barley Grain in Iron Age Type Underground Pits. R. A. Hill et al 1983

Pillow Mounds

82:2 A history of Spain from the earliest times to the death of Ferdinand the Catholic.  Ulick Ralph Burke. 1900

84:1 The Wild Rabbit in a New Aspect, Or, Rabbit-warrens that Pay: A Record of Recent Experiments Conducted on the Estate of the ... Earl of Wharncliffe at Wortley Hall. John Simpson 1893

84:3 Guildford's Hidden History. Helen Chapman-Davies 2010

87:2 An Earthwork of Surprise: The 18th Century Ha-Ha. S. A. Mansbach 2014

87:2 On Other Grounds: Landscape Gardening and Nationalism in Eighteenth-Century England and France. Brigitte Weltman-Aron 2001


99:1 British Fungi and Lichens. George Massee 1910

101:1 Reactive Oxygen Species Play a Role in Regulating a Fungus–Perennial Ryegrass Mutualistic Interaction. Aiko Tanaka et al. 2006

102:2 Vertical transmission of fungal endophytes is widespread in forbs. Susan Hodgson et al 2014

102:3 Identification of epiphyllous mycelial nets on leaves of grasses infected by clavicipitaceous endophytes. Moy et al 1999

103:2 Role of odour compounds in the attraction of gamete vectors in endophytic Epichloë fungi. Fabrizio Steinebrunne et al. 2007

104:1 Botanophila flies, vectors of Epichloë fungal spores, are infected by Wolbachia Lydia Pagel, 2019

111:1 Without Waste or Destruction: The aesthetics of coppicing. Isis Brook 1999?

111:2 Transactions of the Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian Society. 2012

112:1 COPPICE. R E Crowther and D Patch Arboriculture Research Note 21 Issued by the Arboricultural Advisory & Information Service 2010

112:2 Forestry Recommissioned: Bringing England’s woodlands back to life. Plantlife 2011?

Wood Banks

114:2 Pollard and Veteran Tree Management; Introduction to Pollards. Oliver Rackham 1991

115:1 Pollard and Veteran Tree Management; Introduction to Pollards. Oliver Rackham 1991

116:1 Transactions of the Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian Society. 2012

116:1 Practical Agriculture; Or, a Complete System of Modern Husbandry: With the Methods of Planting, and the Management of Live Stock ; in Two Volumes R. W. Dickson 1805

116:2 Medieval Woodland Management in Southern Scotland. John M. Gilbert 2012


118:3 Pollard and Veteran Tree Management; Introduction to Pollards. Oliver Rackham 1991

120:1 The Boke of Husbandry Fitzherbert 1523 (1882 annotated edition)

121:1 Pollard and Veteran Tree Management; Pollarding in Burnham Beeches, Bucks.: a historical review and notes on recent work. Helen J. Read et al 1991

122:1 Pollard and Veteran Tree Management; Introduction to Pollards. Oliver Rackham 1991

122:3 The Journal of a Naturalist.  John Leonard Knapp 1846

125:1 Oxford University and City Herald - Saturday 29 October 1825

126:2 Holloways: Roads Tunneled Into the Earth by Time by Allison Meier September 25, 2014

128:1 The Monthly Review, or Literary Journal Several Hands. 1762

128:2 Derby Mercury 27th May 1790

Lime Kilns

132:1 An Encyclopædia of Cottage, Farm, and Villa Architecture and Furniture, Containing Numerous Designs for Dwelling. John Claudius Loudon 1842

132:3 Pre-industrial Lime Kilns. Historic England Introductions to Heritage Assets

133:2 Lime Kilns: history and heritage. David Johnson 2019

134:2 Windsor and Eton Express - Sunday 02 August 1818

Cuckoo Spit

136:4 Composition and structure of the froth of the spittlebug, Deois SP. Maria Luiza S Mello et al 1987

137:2 The Royal Entomological Society Book of British Insects. Peter C. Bernard 2011

137:4 Meadow Spittlebug, Philaenus leucophthalmus (L.). C. R. Weaver and D. R. King 1954


145:1 The Galling Truth: Limited Knowledge of Gall-Associated Volatiles in Multitrophic Interactions. Renee M. Borges 2018

145:2 Life inside a gall: diversity, phenology and structure of Portuguese gall communities, their hosts, parasitoids and inquilines López-Núñez et al. Arthropod-Plant Interactions. Nov 16, 2018

145:2 The mechanism of plant gall induction by insects: revealing clues, facts, and consequences in a cross-kingdom complex interaction. Omar Gatjens 2019


147:2 CABI Invasive Species Compendium. Cuscata europaea.

147:6 Germination ecology, emergence and host detection in Cuscuta campestris. S. Benvenuti et al 2004


156:2 Trees: Their Use, Management, Cultivation and Biology - A Comprehensive Guide. Bob Watson. 2007

Spalted Wood

160:1 Fungi. New Naturalist. Brian Spooner and Peter Roberts. 2005

160:1 Fungal community ecology and wood decomposition processes in angiosperms: from standing tree to complete decay of coarse woody debris. Lynne Boddy. 2001

161:1 The Fine Art of Decay. Sara. C. Robinson American Scientist May—June 2014

Squirrel Dreys

165:3 Squirrels. Jessica Holm 1987

Lackey Moth Eggs

167:2 Frequency distribution of Malacosoma neustria (L.) egg masses and nests in cork oak forests. Marcello Verdinelli 2002

168:1 Proteinaceous adhesive secretions from insects, and in particular the egg attachment glue of Opodiphthera sp. moths. Dongmei Li 2008

Smut Fungi

172:2 Mating System of the Anther Smut Fungus Microbotryum violaceum: Selfing under Heterothallism. Tatiana Giraud et al 2008

172:2  An asexual flower of Silene latifolia and Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae promotes sex-organ development. Hiroki Kawamoto et al 2019

Rust Fungi

174:2 Life history of Phragmidium violaceum in relation to its effectiveness as a biological control agent of European blackberry. Katherine J. Evans 2003

177:1 Plant diseased caused by fungi. George N. Agrios 2005

Slime Moulds

177:2 Ethnomycological notes. II. Meteorites and fungus lore. Ángel M. Nieves-Rivera 2009

178:1 Origin and evolution of the slime molds (Mycetozoa). Sandra L. Baldauf et al 1997

182:1 Myxomycetes A Handbook of Slime Molds. Steven L Stevenson 2000


184:2 Investigations of an association between the stinkhorn fungus and badger setts. D.P. Sleeman et al 1996

186:1 Volatile Compounds in Stinkhorn (Phallus impudicus L. Ex Pers.) at Different Stages of Growth. Frantisek Pudil et al 2014

187:2 Period Piece: A Cambridge Childhood. Gwen Raverat 1952

Cramp Balls

Note: The literature on this is vast, so I have listed here all the most relevant papers to which I referred:

How Should we look at anamorphs? Keith A. Seifert and Gary J. Samuels. 2000

Ecology of Daldinia spp. Special Emphasis on Daldinia concentrica. Hanna Johannesson. 2000

Daldinia: The nature of its concentric zones. George Sharples et al. 2015

A polyphasic taxonomy of Daldinia (Xylariaceae). Marc Stadler et al. 2014

Fungal communities of beech (Fagus sylvatica) trees: Heart rot and origins of decay. Emma Christine Gilmartin. 2020

A new species of Daldinia (Xylariaceae) from the Argentine subtropical montane forest. Sir (EB). 2011

Xylariaceous Fungi as Endophytes. Liliane Petrini and Orlando Petrini. 1985


194:3 Hympomyces chrysospermus. Fungus Factsheet 57/2011. Richard Robinson.

Nostoc commune

199:1 Etymology of the Genus Name Nostoc (Cyanobacteria). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 1997

Witch’s Broom

200:1 British Plant Galls Margaret Redfern, Peter Shirley 2011

Hair Ice

203:2 Evidence for biological shaping of hair ice. D. Hofmann et al 2015

Oyster Beds

209:2 A Topographical and Historical Account of Hayling Island, Hants. Richard Scott 1826

210:2 The Technologist. Volume 7. Peter Lund Simmonds 1773

210:2 A Topographical and Historical Account of Hayling Island, Hants. Richard Scott 1826

210:2 The oyster industry on Hayling Island. Local history group. Sue Humphrey 2007

212:1 Reproduced in: Falkirk Herald - Wednesday 16 November 1904

212:2 Hampshire Chronicle - Saturday 19 May 1906


216:1 A History of Langstone Harbour. Ronald Tweed. 1999

216:3 The Changing Technology of Post Medieval Salt Production in Hampshire. Jeremy Greenwood 2012


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